Pessoal, eu não entendo muito de inglês, se alguém puder por gentileza traduzir - agradeço. Achei interessante trazer estes termos para o nosso uso, uma vez que serviria como fonte pesquisa - seria muito útil. É só uma sugestão. Se alguém puder reeditar, seria uma boa.
Ace - A Serve that cannot be reached by the opponent.
Ad - Short for Advantage.
Ad in - Indicates that the Server has the advantage.
Ad out - Indicates that the player returning serve has the advantage.
Advantage - The player who scores the first point after Deuce is said to have the advantage.
Anti-spin rubber - An Inverted rubber sheet that is very slick and does not produce or react to spin. It usually has a very dead sponge underneath and is mostly used for defensive shots. Also known as Anti and is considered Junk rubber. Compare to to Sticky rubber.
Attacker - A player who tries to overpower opponents by driving, looping and killing as many balls as possible. Compare to Defender.
Backhand - A shot hit on the opposite side of the body from the racket hand; the left side, for a right-handed player.
Backspin - Reverse spin applied by drawing the face of the racket down across the ball at impact. Also called “underspin”.
Ball - The table tennis ball is a hollow sphere of celluloid or similar plastic, 40 millimeters in diameter and 2.7 grams in weight.
Blade - The paddle without its rubber surface.
Block - A return shot on which the paddle is simply held in front of the ball, with little or no movement.
Blocker - A style of play where blocking is the primary shot. See Block.
Carbon blade - A Blade with a layer of carbon between two wood surfaces.
Center line - A 1/8;" (3 mm.) wide white line, running parallel with the Side lines. The center line shall be regarded as part of each right half court. Mostly used in Doubles play.
Chop - A sharp downward stroke that produces Backspin.
Chop Block - A Block where racket is chopped down at contact to create backspin. Usually performed close to the table.
Chopper - A player who hits a lot of chops.
Closed paddle - The paddle’s hitting surface tilted downward, with the top edge leaning away from the player. Striking the ball with a closed paddle tends to produce Topspin. Compare to Open paddle.
Combination paddle - A paddle that has two different coverings on opposing sides of the face, for example, Anti-spin rubber on one side and Sticky rubber on the other.
Contact Angle - The angle of the racket prior to striking the ball. For example, a racket perpendicular to the floor has a contact angle of 90 degrees.
Counter-drive - An attacking shot wherein a Drive is made against a drive.
Counter-loop - To Loop a loop.
Counter-smash - To Smash a smash.
Court - The playing area on one side of the net, which is 5 feet wide and 4 ½ feet long. Sometimes used to mean the entire surface of the table.
Crosscourt - A ball that is hit diagonally from corner to corner.
Cup - To close the palm on the ball when tossing it up for a Serve. Cupping is against the rules, since it can be used to put spin on the ball.
Dead ball - A ball that has little or no spin.
Defender - A player who concentrates on returning shots, hitting many pushes, chops, lobs and blocks, waiting for the opponent to make a mistake. Compare to Attacker.
Deuce - The situation when the score is 10 all (20-all if game is 21). The players then alternate serves until one of them wins by taking a 2-point lead.
Double hit - A shot on which the ball contacts a player’s paddle or paddle hand twice; results in loss of point.
Doubles - A game between two teams of two players each. Partners have to alternate shots.
Drive - A shot hit with great force, not as powerful as a Smash and not as spinny as a Loop.
Drop - A short shot that falls just over the net, often performed to bring the opponent up to the table.
Dwell Time - The duration of time a ball stays on a racket during a stroke.
Dynamic Coefficient of Friction - A measure of the friction of a moving / sliding ball on a rubber surface. When the dynamic coefficient is low, then the rubber can impart little or no spin. A low friction rubber has trouble also generating speed at closed racket angles. The friction of the rubber is also frequency dependent. Rubber can have very high friction at low impact speeds but at high impact speeds the friction drops. The frictional performance of rubber for different frequency shots is related to a number of factors including the type of material of the top sheet, the pattern on the top sheet, the pip geometry of the top sheet, the type of sponge and its thickness and the type of glue (and its “state of cure”) used to put the rubber on the blade. Tests have shown that there is a critical minimum friction above which nothing is gained relative to the spin/speed of loop shots. In fact under certain conditions and techniques super, high friction rubber can impart less spin/speed than ones with lower frictional characteristics. (In tests carried out by ITTF scientists, it was found that super tacky Chinese style rubber actually produced less spin for high speed shots than the speed glued Japanese style rubber.)
Dynamic Energy Storage - The amount of energy stored in the rubber (racket) during the contact phase of a stroke which can be converted to produce the speed and spin of the ball after leaving the racket.
End line - The white ¾" (2 cm.) lines along the 5 ft. (152.5 cm.) edges or ends, regarded as extending indefinitely in both directions.
Expedite system - A method of limited a game’s duration under certain circumstances, most commonly if neither player has reached 9 points after 10 minutes of play (19 points after 15 minutes if game is 21). Players alternate serving and the receiver is awarded a point for returning 13 successive shots.
Five-ball attack - A strategy in which the server attempts to win the point on the fifth ball over the net. The ideal sequence is serve, return, Loop, return, and Kill. Compare to Third-ball attack.
Flip - A soft shot hit with a quick upward turn of the wrist that imparts Topspin, often used to return a soft serve that has Backspin.
Flipping - A deceptive practice employed by defensive players with Combination paddles, usually with Junk rubber on one side. Involves quickly turning the paddle over so the Forehand rubber sheet is on the Backhand side. Often performed by the Receiver under the Table during return of Serve. Also called Twiddling.
Footwork - How a person moves to position themselves to make a shot.
Forehand - A shot hit on the same side of the body as the paddle hand; the right side, for a right-handed player.
Game - A table tennis game ends when one player has scored at least 11 or 21 points and at least 2 more than the opposing player. International rules now call for an 11-point game, but the 21-point game is still often used in Hardbat and informal play. See Deuce.
Glue - Adhesive used to adhere the sheet of rubber to a side of the Blade. Adhesives used are generally rubber cement, Speed glue or Glue sheets.
Glue sheets - Adheres the Rubber sheet to the Blade without the mess or fumes of liquid glue.
Grip - The way in which the paddle is held. See Penholder grip; Seemiller grip; Shakehand grip.
Half-court - One side of a Court, 4 ½ feet long by 2 ½ feet wide, representing one quarter of the table, delineated by the Net and the Center line.
Handcuff - A Shot made to the opponent’s middle such that he has neither a clear Forehand or Backhand return shot available.
Hardbat - An older type of paddle, on which the Rubber sheet is attached with the Pips out.
High Toss Serve - A Serve where the ball is thrown high into the air. This increases both spin and deception.
Inside out - Descriptive of a shot hit with Sidespin so that it will curve and bounce away from the opponent.
Inverted rubber - - The most common racket covering. It consists of a sheet of Pips rubber on top of a layer of sponge. The pips point inward, so the surface is smooth. This is the opposite of pips-out sponge, where the pips point outward. It’s called “inverted” because it’s basically the same covering used on a Hardbat, but upside down.
I.T.T.F - International Table Tennis Federation. The governing body for table tennis in the world.
Junk rubber - Anti-spin rubber or Long pips rubber.
Kill - A shot on which the ball is hit as hard as possible, often with Topspin. See also Loop kill.
Let - A rally whose result doesn’t count, usually because the umpire called a halt in play because of some distraction or interruption. See the following entry.
Let serve - A Serve that touches the net before entering the opponent’s court. It doesn’t count and is replayed.
Loaded - Descriptive of a shot that has a great deal of spin.
Lob - A defensive shot that’s hit high into the air, often as a way of buying time after the opponent has hit a Kill shot.
Long pips rubber - A rubber sheet covered with long, cyclindrical projections (pips) that allow the player to put a lot of unpredictable spin on the ball.
Loop - A shot hit with a long, upward motion, from as low as the knees to as high as the forehead, grazing the ball and putting heavy Topspin on it. It’s often used to set up a Kill, since the opponent’s return is likely to be high.
Loop kill - A loop hit very hard, with a flat trajectory.
Match - A series of games played to determine a winner, typically best-of-three or best-of-five.
Men’s doubles - Doubles competition between male teams.
Misbehavior - This includes unsportsmanlike conduct such as using abusive language, deliberately breaking the ball, kicking the table, and showing disrespect toward the officials. The first offense generally brings a Yellow card, the second a Penalty point for the player’s opponent, the third two penalty points. Any misbehavior beyond the third offense is likely to result in suspension.
Mixed doubles - Doubles competition in which each team has a male and a female player.
Net - The net is 6 inches high and stretches the width of the table.
Obstruction - Touching the ball with any part of the body or clothing while it is over the table and before it has bounced in the proper court. The offender loses the point.
Open paddle - The paddle’s hitting surface tilted upward, with the top edge leaning towards the player. Striking the ball with an open paddle tends to produce Backspin. Compare to Closed paddle.
Paddle - The table tennis paddle must be made primarily of wood. There are no restrictions as to size. A legal Rubber sheet must be applied to any side used for striking the ball. One side must be black, the other cherry red. If there is a non-hitting side with no rubber sheet attached, it must have a paint sheet of the appropriate color.
Paint sheet - Not paint at all, but a sheet of colored plastic used to cover the non-hitting side of the paddle.
Penalty point - A point awarded by the umpire to a player because of a rules violation by that player’s opponent. A penalty point can be awarded for a second Misbehavior offense, after the player has been cautioned with a Yellow card for the first offense. A third offense incurs two penalty points.
Penholder grip - A grip, especially popular in Asia, in which the racket is held between the thumb and first finger, with the handle pointing up.
Playing surface - The table’s upper surface.
Pick - A shot used to turn the opponent’s Backspin into Topspin, effected by using a hitting motion parallel to the table top with an Open paddle.
Ping-Pong - A trademarked name for table tennis, originally registered by Parker Brothers in 1901.
Pips - Small cylinders that protrude from a Rubber sheet.
Pips out - Descriptive of a Rubber sheet attached to the paddle so that the side with pips will contact the ball, as on a Hardbat. The opposite of Inverted rubber.
Point - A single scoring unit. A player loses a point if: He fails to make a good service or a good return of the opponent’s shot; the ball bounces twice consecutively in his court; his free hand touches the playing surface. Points are also lost because of a Double hit, Obstruction, or a Volley. See also Penalty point.
Push - A gentle shot with Backspin, struck with an Open paddle against the bottom of the ball and usually hit short and low.
Racket - The Paddle.
Rally - The period during which the ball is in play; an exchange of shots that begins with a Serve and ends with a Point or a Let.
Rating - A number that is assigned to all tournament players based on their results playing matches against other rated players. The better the player the higher the rating should be. The range is from about 200 to about 2900.
Receiver - The player who is returning serve.
Red card - A card that calls for dismissal of an illegal advisor, when shown by the umpire. If shown along with a Yellow card, it indicates that a Penalty point has been awarded.
Resilience - The percentage rebound of a ball dropped from a given height over a stationary horizontally held racket.
Robot - A machine set up on one side of the table to help a player practice on a particular Shot. Robots can be remotely adjusted to deliver balls of differing speed, rate, spin, and placement.
Rubber Cleaner - Used to keep the surface of Inverted rubber clean.
Rubber sheet - A covering that’s glued to the hitting side of a table tennis paddle, often over a thin layer of Sponge. Many rubber sheets have Pips on one side and are smooth on the other. See Anti-spin rubber; Combination paddle; Hardbat; Inverted rubber; Long pips rubber; Pips out; Sandwich rubber; Sticky rubber.
Sandwich rubber - A rubber sheet attached to the paddle with an underlying layer of Sponge.
Seemiller grip - A Grip in which a Combination paddle is constantly rotated so that the ball can be struck with either side of the hitting surface. Named after it’s most famous practitioner and U.S. Open Champion, Dan Seemiller.
Serve - Short for service.
Server - The player who strikes the ball first in a Rally.
Service - The shot that starts a Rally. The server must toss the ball up at least 16 centimeters (6 inches) and strike it as it’s falling, so that it touches first in the server’s Court and then in the receiver’s court, without touching the Net. When struck, the ball must be above the level of the playing surface and behind the server’s end line. See also Let.
Shakehand grip - A Grip in which the paddle is held as if the player were shaking hands with it.
Shot - Hitting the ball back to your opponent. A shot can be a Push, Block, Drop, Drive, Loop, Lob, Chop and others.
Side lines - The white ¾" (2 cm.) lines along the 9 ft. (274 cm.) edges or sides of the .
Sidespin - Spin around the ball’s vertical axis, imparted by drawing the paddle sideways across the ball at impact. Sidespin can be left to right, or right to left.
Singles - Competition between two individuals.
Skunk - A win in which the opponent scored no Points.
Smash - A Kill shot.
Speed Glue - A type of Glue used to adhere the sheet of table tennis sponge rubber to the Blade to make it faster and spinnier.
Sponge - A thin layer of sponge rubber attached between the Rubber sheet and the Blade to increase speed and spin.
Spin - The rotation of the Ball. The faster the rotation, the “heavier” the spin. Types of spin are Topspin, Backspin and Sidespin.
Sticky rubber - A type of rubber that allows the player to put a lot of spin on the ball.
Stall Angle - A contact angle for a rubber in which the spin/speed of the rubber is dramatically reduced. For certain contact angles most rubber will stall and not store much energy. An analogy would be the behavior of blades when a ball is struck on the outside of the blade away from the sweet spot; when this happens the blade loses its ability to impart speed and spin. The stall angle can be used effectively for certain shots such as no-spin serves and loops. When a rubber has a wide band of stall angles it contributes to a lack of control as the player is not able to choose when the phenomenon will occur unless he/she develops fine touch. A stall also can occur at a particular contact angle when the racket contact speed is too fast. Finally, stalls can occur if a mismatched blade is used with a rubber. Some rubbers are sensitive to the stiffness, weight and hardness and other esoteric properties of a blade. This is why many manufacturers design blades to work with specific rubbers.
Star Classifications - 1). Table Tennis Balls are classified by quality according to the number of stars they have printed on their label. Three stars is the highest and best rating. 2). For Tournaments, the larger the prize purse, the more stars are given. Five-star tournaments are the biggest, with thousands given out in prize money.
Stroke - See Shot.
Stroke counter - An official who counts return strokes when the Expedite system is in effect.
Table - The table must be 9 feet long and 5 feet wide, with the surface 30 inches above the floor.
Third-ball attack - A strategy in which the server attempts to win the point on the third ball over the net, almost invariably with a Kill shot on the receiver’s return of service. Compare to Five-ball attack.
Throw Angle - The angle the flight of the ball makes coming off a racket face with the direction the racket is traveling. Each rubber has characteristic throw angles for each different type of stroke and blade. The throw angle characteristics are modified also by the contact racket angles, whether the racket is more open or closed and whether the contact is on the inside, middle or outside of the ball. This in turn determines whether the ball trajectory will be low, medium or high, and the ratio between the spin and speed of the ball after it leaves the racket face. High throw angle rubber generally has a higher spin component than speed, compared with low throw angle rubber. The throw angle of a rubber can be modified considerably by the blade used. (Flexy/slow/allround blades typically increase the throw angle.)
Topspin - Forward spin applied by drawing the face of the paddle up across the ball at impact.
Tack - A term which indicates the stickiness of a top sheet. The tackiness of a rubber sheet is usually measured by seeing whether the racket will hold the ball upside down on the face. A highly tacky surface will hold the ball for many seconds or even indefinitely. Under low impact speeds a tacky surface will slow the ball down dramatically. This characteristic is useful for certain shots. Tacky surfaces are particularly good at producing spinny serves, slow loops and pushes.
Tournament - An event wherein players compete in a variety of categories, and the one that prevails through the final round or that finishes with the best record is declared the winner.
Two-color rule - The rule that one of the paddle’s striking surfaces must be black, the other red.
Umpire - The official who keeps score and enforces rules during a Match.
U.S.A.T.T. - USA Table Tennis. The governing body for table tennis in the United States. There are a number of Membership Benefits, including the bi-monthly color glossy magazine, and ability to play in USATT tournaments and receive a USATT rating. As of 2001, there were about 8000 members.
Volley - To hit the ball before it has bounced. Illegal in table tennis; the offender loses the point.
Whiff - To miss the ball completely on an attempted shot.
Women’s doubles - Doubles competition between female teams.
Yellow card - A card that signifies a warning for a violation when shown to a player by the umpire. If shown along with a Red card, it indicates that a Penalty point has been awarded.